Ashley G. Sutton*, Nicole Chandler and Kenneth B. Roberts Pages 269 - 276 ( 8 )
Background: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is a common cause of bacterial infection in young children, and accounts for a significant number of pediatric hospitalizations.
Objective: To review recent publications focusing on the care of children hospitalized with their first febrile UTI.
Methods: A PubMed search was performed including publications from 2011-2016 on first febrile UTI in childhood. Abstracts were reviewed for being relevant to the care of hospitalized children and their follow-up. Relevant articles underwent full review by all authors and articles excluded from results included those without novel data analysis, primary improvement-based reports and studies with poor design or analysis. Included articles were categorized as “diagnosis”, “management”, “imaging” or “follow-up”.
Results: Of 406 articles initially identified, 40 studies were included. One technical report with a systematic review was also included. Major topics addressed included the role of urinalysis in screening for UTI, use of parenteral antimicrobial therapy, the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis in prevention of recurrent UTI, and ideal follow-up and imaging approach following diagnosis of febrile UTI.
Conclusion: Recent literature on first febrile UTI addresses a broad range of areas regarding the care of hospitalized children, though some questions remain unanswered. Overall, studies support increased attention to the potential risks, expense and invasiveness of various approaches for evaluation. Proposed updates to practice included: utilization of urinalysis for screening and diagnosis, transitioning to oral antimicrobials based on clinical improvement and limiting the routine use of voiding cystourethrogram and antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Child, infant, pyelonephritis, renal scarring, urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux.
Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 101 Manning Drive, CB # 7220, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC