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The Role of Biofilm in Central Venous Catheter Related Bloodstream Infections: Evidence-based Nursing and Review of the Literature

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 1 ]

Author(s):

Nicola Ielapi, Emanuela Nicoletti, Carmela Lorè, Giorgio Guasticchi, Tiziana Avenoso, Andrea Barbetta, Stefano de Franciscis, Michele Andreucci, Paolo Sapienza and Raffaele Serra*   Pages 22 - 27 ( 6 )

Abstract:


Background: Biofilm is a fundamental component in the pathogenesis of infections related to the use of the central venous catheter (CVC,) which can represent an important health issue in everyday practice of nursing and medical staff.

Objective: The objective of the following review is to analyze the components of biofilm and their role in catheter-related infection determinism in an evidencebased nursing perspective in such a way as to give health professionals useful suggestions in the prevention and management of these complications.

Methods: The following databases were consulted for the bibliographic search: Medline, Scopus, Science Direct.

Biofilm can be the cause of CVC extraction and can lead to serious haematogenic infectious complications that can increase the morbidity and mortality of affected patients.

Results: Updated pathophysiologic knowledge of biofilm formation and appropriate diagnostic methodology are pivotal in understanding and detecting CVC-related infections. Lock therapy appears to be a useful, preventive, and therapeutic aid in the management of CVCrelated infections. New therapies attempting to stop bacterial adhesion on the materials used could represent new frontiers for the prevention of CVC-related infections.

Conclusion: The correct evidence-based nursing methods, based on the use of guidelines, provides the opportunity to minimize the risks of infection through the implementation of a series of preventive measures both during the CVC positioning phase and in the subsequent phase, for example, during device management which is performed by medical and nursing staff.

Keywords:

Biofilm, central venous catheter, infection, nursing, prevention, treatment.

Affiliation:

Interuniversity Center of Phlebolymphology (CIFL), International Research and Educational Program in Clinical and Experimental Biotechnology, Headquarters, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Department of Medicine, Petruccioli Hospital, Pitigliano (GR), Private Office, Lamezia Terme (CZ), Department of Medicine, Media Valle del Tevere Hospital, Todi (PG), Department of Ophtalmology. Pugliese – Ciaccio – Hospital, Catanzaro (CZ), Interuniversity Center of Phlebolymphology (CIFL), International Research and Educational Program in Clinical and Experimental Biotechnology, Headquarters, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Interuniversity Center of Phlebolymphology (CIFL), International Research and Educational Program in Clinical and Experimental Biotechnology, Headquarters, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Department of Health Sciences, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Department of Surgery “Pietro Valdoni”, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome, Interuniversity Center of Phlebolymphology (CIFL), International Research and Educational Program in Clinical and Experimental Biotechnology, Headquarters, University Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Catanzaro

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