Submit Manuscript  

Article Details


Liver Cirrhosis Complications Management at the Emergency Department

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 4 ]

Author(s):

Emidio Scarpellini, Carmelo Luigiano, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Dan Dumitrascu, Tiziana Larussa, Valeria Santori, Francesco Luzza and Ludovico Abenavoli*   Pages 331 - 338 ( 8 )

Abstract:


Background and Aims: Liver cirrhosis (LC) of any origin has always been a source of several emergencies for physicians working at the Emergency Department (ER). LC patients can present with several complications that are sometimes difficult to recognize and treat.

Thus, we reviewed the literature evidence for the diagnosis and management of several LC related emergencies.

Methods: We conducted a search on the main medical databases for papers, reviews, metanalyses, case series, and RCTs using the following keywords and their associations: liver cirrhosis, variceal hemorrhage, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-renal syndrome, emergency.

Results: Main LC emergencies are upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, decompensated ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, hepato-renal syndrome. Their management is partly medical and interventional. Very often, the final cure of some complications, such as hepato-renal syndrome, is represented by liver transplantation.

Conclusion: Although LC prevalence is going to fall in the following years, due to HBV and HCV optimized treatments, its complications represent a significant admission percentage at the ER and challenge for physicians’ skills.

Keywords:

Liver cirrhosis, variceal hemorrhage, ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepato-renal syndrome, emergency.

Affiliation:

Internal Medicine Unit, “Madonna del Soccorso” General Hospital, San Benedetto del Tronto, Endoscopy Unit, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Milan, Gastroenterology Clinic, “Riuniti University Hospital”, Polytechnics University of Marche, Ancona, Gastroenterology Unit, Cluj University, Cluj-Napoca, Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Gastroenterology Clinic, “Riuniti University Hospital”, Polytechnics University of Marche, Ancona, Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro, Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia”, Catanzaro

Graphical Abstract:



Read Full-Text article